The volatile matter
of each coal sample was determined using ASTM-D3175 standard .
(2014) found a percentage of 84.03 for the content of volatile matter
of sugarcane bagasse, close to that found in this study (84%).
Under proximate-analysis (Table 1) all of the (17) specimens were tested for moisture contents (MC), volatile matter
(VM), fixed carbon (FC) and ash contents (AC), while, under elemental analysis (Table 2) percentages of hydrogen, nitrogen, sulphur and oxygen present in the samples were evaluated so as to determine the suitability of this coal for various industrial and applied purposes.
Usui, "Effect of residual volatile matter
on reduction of iron oxide in semi-charcoal composite pellets," ISIJ International, vol.
Fixed carbon and volatile matter
are among the properties not studied by other authors.
Fixed carbon is the solid fuel left in the furnace after the volatile matter
is distilled off.
This decrease in [H.sub.2] production upon increasing biomass content is due to the presence of higher volatile matter
in biomass than in coal, which causes a reduction in gasification temperature thereby leading to a reduction in hydrogen production [14,22].
This is because the density and chemical composition of the sewage sludge, as well as the relatively low process temperature, can negatively influence the pyrolysis process, leading to an incomplete carbonization and producing a biochar with high volatile matter
content and labile C.
Moisture content was determined by weight loss at temperatures close to 100[degrees]C, while volatile matter
content represented the mass evolved between the temperatures of 100 and 550[degrees]C.
The calculated dry ash-free values of the volatile matter
of both oil shales ([V.sup.daf] [approximately equal to] 94-97%) are indicative of the low thermal stability of their organic matter.
The mass of volatile matter
, fixed carbon, and ash determined by proximate analysis were expressed as percentage of a moisture-free mass (Table 6).
The main antibacterial volatile components of the dip-treated wood bunches accounted for 54.55% of the total volatile matter
; the main antibacterial volatile components of the hot-pressed dipping sheet constituted 68.19% of the total volatile matter
; and the main antibacterial volatile components of the non-pretreated plain boards accounted for 84.86% of the total volatile matter