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During this activity, the students were instructed to carefully read the scenario of each WDCT in their booklets and pay close attention to the responses provided by the native speakers ("you-responses").
Under my supervision, each student completed six multiple-turn WDCTs (Ishihara & Cohen, 2010) based on scenarios similar to those used in Phase 1.
SiGe BiCMOS Transceiver and SiGe Power Amplifier for 5.8 GHz WDCT Applications, Reimann, Krimmer, Boschof, Gerlach; A 5-6 GHz High Gain SiGe Power Amplifier, Bischof, Gerlach
The refusal WDCT was administered in paper format to about 20 EFL students.
Although the strategies in that framework represented refusal production rather than functioning as a rating rubric, they helped to identify in the raters' comments criteria related to the (in)appropriateness of refusal in terms of the underrepresentation, overrepresentation, or nonrealization of certain strategies in response to a situation in the WDCT. The second source of insight was Brown and Levinson's (1987) politeness model, in which strategies of positive and negative politeness are depicted.
Like the previous criterion, NNES raters did not employ this criterion to rate the WDCT.
Both NES and NNES raters used this criteria to rate the appropriateness of WDCT responses.
Both NES and NNES raters took this criterion into account in rating WDCT responses.
Table 1 shows the frequency of NES and NNES raters' criteria for the total WDCT and across all six situations.
Furthermore, standard deviations of NNES ratings for the total WDCT and all six situations therein were found to be greater, showing less convergence in their ratings compared with the NES ratings.
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