While Alkire et al (2013) went some way in addressing aggregation problems that continue to dog other indices such as the UN (2017) and UNDP's (2016) GIII, the World Economic Forum's GGGI and SADC's SGDI/CSC - and also attempted to measure both gender equality and women's empowerment - they acknowledge that their concentration on agriculture (the WEAI
) gave the impression that women who are outside this sector were necessarily disempowered (Alkire et al, 2013: 72-75; 82; 89; also see Hallward-Driemeier, 2013: 257).
For an organization like WEAI
, leveraging digital tools to assist networking opportunities is a relatively straightforward application of the concept.
This research was presented at the 7th International Graduate Student Conference of the East-West Center, the 84th WEAI
Conference, and Kobe University.
He thanks Patrick Bajari, Mark Long, Shane Murphy, Elaina Rose, William Zumeta, anonymous reviewers, and session participants at the University of Washington, UC Santa Barbara, CSU Fullerton, and the WEAI
for their comments and suggestions.
This article is based upon presentations at the closing session of the 13th International Conference of the Western Economic Association International (WEAI
), hosted by the Instituto de Economia, Universidad Catolica de Chile, Santiago, January 3-6, 2017.
I would like to thank Leo Divinagracia for computer programming assistance, Kevin Quinn and Thomas Rhoads as discussants for an earlier version of this paper, conference participants at the May, 2008 IASE meetings in Gijon, Spain, and the July, 2008 WEAI
meetings in Honolulu, and referees of this journal.
* Earlier versions of this manuscript were presented at the XVII April International Academic Conference on Economic and Social Development in Moscow (Russia), at the 7th Conference of the European Sports Economics Association (ESEA) in Zurich (Switzerland), at the 90th Conference of the Western Economic Association International (WEAI
) in Honolulu (USA), and at 22nd University Day of the German Society of Sport Science (DVS) in Mainz (Germany).
This virtual issue came out of sessions at the 2016 WEAI
International Conference in Singapore, and originally contained articles by noted economists Yew-Kwang Ng, James A.
Doug Miller, Giovanni Peri, Vladimir Tyazhelnikov, three anonymous referees, and participants at UC Davis brownbag series and the 2016 WEAI
Dissertation Workshop for helpful comments.
We do appreciate comments from the seminar participants at the June/July 2016 Western Economic Association International (WEAI
) Meetings in Portland, Oregon and the Spring 2016 Department of Finance & Economics Seminar Series where initial versions of this research article were presented.
We benefited from the suggestions and comments of seminar participants at Stanford University, University of Michigan, the fall 2015 meetings of the Association for Public Policy Analysis and Management (APPAM) in Miami, FL, and the winter 2017 meetings of the Western Economic Association International (WEAI
) in Santiago, Chile.
Louis, the Bundesbank, Wits Business School, Vanderbilt University, the University of Kansas, the 2014 MEA meeting, the 2014 Midwest Macro meeting, the 2014 CEF conference, the 2014 WEAI
meeting, the 2014 Dynare Conference, the 2014 SEA meeting, the 2014 ECB workshop on Non-Standard Monetary Policy Measures, and the 2015 RBA Quantitative Macroeconomics Workshop.