WFSE. Three items from Casper (2000) were used to assess WFSE at Time 1.
The first model included all items as one construct; the second model included the predictor items as one construct; and the outcome as one construct, the third model included self-efficacy items (career-related self-efficacy and WFSE) as one construct, outcome expectations as one construct; and commitment to a STEM career as one construct, and the fourth model included all of the study's focal variables as distinct constructs.
WFSE (r = .44, p < .001), career-related self-efficacy (r = .35, p < .001), and outcome expectations (r = .24, p < .001) shared significant positive correlations with commitment to a STEM career.
A three-step hierarchical regression was conducted to examine the control and main effects of marital status, gender, career-related self-efficacy, and outcome expectations on commitment to a STEM career; the incremental contribution of WFSE to commitment to a STEM career; and the interaction between WFSE and gender on the outcome.
In Step 2, WFSE was a significant positive predictor of (B = .32, p < .001) and accounted for significant incremental variance in commitment to a STEM career above and beyond career-related self-efficacy and outcome expectations, [DELTA]F(1, 240) = 30.76, p < .001, [DELTA][R.sup.2] = .10, thus supporting Hypothesis 3.
Using Model One of the SPSS macro (with all other variables entered as covariates), it was determined that the interaction between gender and WFSE was a significant negative predictor (B = -.21, p < .05) of commitment to a STEM career.
Figure 1 shows that at lower levels of WFSE, women have higher levels of commitment to a STEM career than do men; this difference was statistically significant, t(239) = 1.98, p < .05.
Guided by the SCCT-CSM, we investigated WFSE's incremental contribution to STEM commitment above and beyond career-related self-efficacy and outcomes expectations, and how the relationship between WFSE and STEM commitment differed for men and women.
Also as hypothesized, WFSE accounted for incremental variance (10%) in commitment to a STEM career beyond career-related self-efficacy and outcome expectations.
Finally, the hypothesized moderating effect of gender on the relationship between WFSE and commitment to a STEM career was partially supported.
Second, it may be the case that whereas WFSE is more influential for men's STEM commitment, expectations of work-family conflict may be more influential for women's future STEM attrition.
First, the finding that WFSE is a significant predictor of commitment to a STEM career suggests that initiatives can be implemented to enhance students' WFSE early in their STEM experience, which may help keep men and women committed to STEM careers.