Second, the results from the Nurses' Health Study (NHS) for other outcomes--including stroke, pulmonary embolism, hip fracture, colorectal cancer, breast cancer, and cognitive function--were quite similar to those from the WHI
Researchers studied the medical records of more than 150,000 postmenopausal women who participated in the WHI
. Having hot flashes was associated with an 18 percent increased risk of diabetes.
A 2013 report from the Women's Health Initiative (WHI
), the large National Institutes of Health-funded placebo-controlled randomized trial of postmenopausal hormone therapy (HT) with oral estrogen (for women with hysterectomy) or estrogenprogestin (for women with an intact uterus), with 13 years of cumulative follow-up, documented the safety of systemic HT when initiated by women younger than 60 years of age or within 10 years of menopause onset.
Margaret Polaneczky, MD, FACOG, associate professor of obstetrics and gynecology at Weill Cornell, notes that the WHI
was never actually designed to address the use of HRT for treatment of menopausal symptoms.
In 2002, the WHI
reported that taking hormones after menopause could raise the risk of breast cancer, heart attack, stroke, and blood clots.
The FCA found that between 1 January and 19 June 2013, WHI
failed to ensure it had the proper systems and controls in place to prevent market abuse being detected or occurring.
The number of baseline cardiovascular risk factors present at enrollment in the WHI
turned out to be a powerful determinant of the likelihood of acute MI or death as a result of coronary heart disease in participants who developed breast cancer.
The Kronos Early Estrogen Prevention Study (KEEPS) is the name of an unnecessary trial that was conducted by hormone enthusiasts after the WHI
proved that the harms of menopausal hormone therapy (including increased risks of breast cancer, heart attacks, strokes, and dementia) outweighed its only disease prevention benefit--a reduced risk of fractures.
Among other discoveries, WHI
led to the groundbreaking revelation that women who took estrogen hormone therapy had a higher risk of cardiovascular disease.
Recently, the Journal of the American Medical Association published the final results of the WHI
HRT trial (Oct.
Throughout his critique, Professor Noakes focuses on subgroup findings rather than the robust overall findings from the WHI