The Court never mentions officer safety in Whren
. As discussed in Section V.A, however, the findings and typology illustrate that obscuring the subjective bases of traffic stops can also obfuscate the potentially different danger risks that criminal enforcement and routine traffic stops pose to law enforcement.
As seen in Whren
, if a police officer has probable cause to make a traffic stop, then the stop is justified regardless of the officer's subjective intentions for stopping the motorist.
(102) Echoing Whren
, the Court emphasized that the Fourth Amendment forbids only objectively unreasonable searches without regard for the investigating officer's actual, subjective plan.
(28) According to the Whren
court, traffic stops are valid regardless of the subjective motivations of the investigating officers, so long as there is probable cause that some traffic violation has occurred which would allow a stop for that violation.
It was January 7, 1989, whren
Sutton United beat Coventry 2-1.
(25.) KAREN GLOVER, RACIAL PROFILING RESEARCH, RACISM, AND RESISTANCE 25 (2009) (stating that color-blind racism in Whren
"dismissed the salience of race in contemporary times and established greater latitude for police powers that have been used historically and contemporarily to oppress communities of color").
City of Lago Vista (348) (which held that the police could make an arrest--and therefore an attendant search--for any crime, regardless of how trivial (349)), and Whren
It may even cause scholars to revisit the United States Supreme Court's decision in Whren
He can manoeuvre it, he can play and he's got a turn of pace whRen
he's fully wound up.
v United States, 517 US 806, 810 (1996).
(359) Thompson uses social science research on stereotyping to demonstrate the high risk of racial profiling that was created by the Terry decision and then reinforced by the Whren
(129) Even if motivated by racism, the stop and search can still be lawful if there is probable cause as a result of Whren
v United States, 517 US 806, 819 (1996) (Scalia J for the Court).