WHSVWeight Hourly Space Velocity (hydrodynamics)
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Increase in temperature for ethanol conversion over H-ZeAdegClay was found to have insignificant impact on the activity of the catalyst under fixed reaction conditions (2 h-1 WHSV, 6 hour time-on-stream).
The formation of partially deoxygenated groups increases as temperature and WHSV increase; these compounds are considered as primary intermediates of reaction of the free fatty acids to olefins and as by-products of reaction to the alkanes and aromatics as a result of processes of cyclization and hydrogenation of the olefins [29].
[15] who reported similar conversions of 68.6% and 58.7% of liquid products, respectively, at higher WHSV and temperature values compared with those used in this research.
Caption: Figure 3: FTIR spectra of hydrotreated oil at different temperatures with WHSV of 3 [min.sup.-1 with 20% USY/[Al.sub.2][O.sub.3] without metallic active phase.
Caption: Figure 4: Displacement of absorption bands in hydrotreated samples with 20% USY catalyst with WHSV of 35.28 [h.sup.-1].
Caption: Figure 5: Comparative catalytic activity in samples hydrotreated by FTIR at different temperatures and WHSV with platinum-loaded 20% USY/[Al.sub.2][O.sub.3] catalyst.
Caption: Figure 6: Comparative maximum conversion and hydrotreated samples by FTIR and CG/MSD at different temperatures with catalyst 0.01% Pt and 20% USY/[Al.sub.2][O.sub.3] at WHSV = 35.28 [h.sup.-1].
The WHSV website provides a flier approximately every three months to increase awareness of seasonal wildlife health issues.
The results of toluene WHSV are summarized in Table 6.
In both catalysts, cis- and trans-decalins were obtained as major products from tetralin hydrogenation, along with the other hydrogenation products such as ROCP and CR, and it could be clearly seen on the GC chromatogram(Figure 3),but naphthalene was not obtained under these reaction conditions (at270[degrees]C, using [H.sub.2] pressure of 30 bar, WHSV of 2.3 [h.sup.-1], and [H.sub.2]/feed molar ratio of 40).
Studies were carried out for catalysts with 0.0-10.0 wt.% Mn loading at the reaction conditions of water-to-ethanol molar feed ratio: 3:1, reaction temperatures: 200, 240, 280, 320 and 360[degrees]C, catalyst reduction temperature: 400[degrees]C, carrier ([N.sub.2]) gas flow rate: 15 sccm, WHSV: 1.11 h-1 (W/[F.sub.C2H5OH] = 0.90 h) and catalyst/ glass beads: 1.50 g/3.00 g.
Figure 7 shows the behaviour of different catalysts with catalyst bed temperature change at a W/[F.sub.C2H5OH] = 0.90 h (WHSV = 1.11 [h.sup.-1]).