By comparison, respondents in this study reported lower levels of pain severity, as measured by the WHYMPI
, than did respondents in earlier studies of people with cancer pain (Turk et al., 1998) and chronic pain unrelated to a life-threatening illness (Linton, Hellsing, & Larsson, 1997).
Pain-related disability was measured with items from the Interference subscale of the West Haven-Yale Multidimensional Pain Inventory (WHYMPI) .
Participants' mean score on the Interference scale of the WHYMPI was 3.4 [+ or -] 1.8, which indicates moderate interference.
Abbreviations: anti-CCP = anticyclic citrullinated peptide, AUDIT = Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test, CBT = cognitive-behavioral therapy, CES-D = Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, FM = fibromyalgia, HCV = hepatitis C virus, IFN = interferon, MC = mixed cryoglobulinemia, MPQ-SF = McGill Pain Questionnaire-Short Form, NRS = Numeric Rating Scale, NSAID = nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, PN = peripheral neuropathy, RA = rheumatoid arthritis, SD = standard deviation, VA = Department of Veterans Affairs, VHA = Veterans Health Administration, WHYMPI = West Haven-Yale Multidimensional Pain Inventory.
The measures of pain and functioning analyzed were the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) for assessment of depression, the Roland- Morris Disability Questionnaire (RMDQ) for assessment of disability, the Interference scale of the West Haven- Yale Multidimensional Pain Inventory (WHYMPI) for assessment of how pain has interfered with the patient's life, and the Pain Severity scale of the WHYMPI.
The Interference scale of the WHYMPI consists of 11 items that assess how pain has interfered with daily activities and functioning, including the ability to work, enjoy family, participate in social and recreational activities, and perform household chores .
The Pain Severity scale of the WHYMPI was used for assessment of pain severity .