circumstances in which it is permissible to WLST. It immediately follows
introduce any problems that are not already present in decisions to WLST
that means to all circumstances in which it is permissible to WLST. It
substitute decision makers can also authorize physicians to WLST to
Patients who passed away without WLST were only analyzed for cause of death.
Cause of death and WLST data were collected from the medical records.
Group differences between survivors and patients who died due to WLST were calculated using a Mann-Whitney U test in case of continuous, nonnormally distributed, variables.
Patients for whom WLST was initiated were significantly older and had a median AIShead of five, whereas the AIShead of the non-WLST patients was four (p < 0.001).
Body weight was recorded before every endurance exercise and the final WLST
. The body weight data are shown in Figure 1(a).
The nursing care of a potential DCD patient and his or her family is an extension of routine WLST. The role of the nurse is the same as during WLST: providing safe, ethical care while advocating for patients and their families.
In DCD cases, WLST often takes place in a different location with more team members present than usual.
Prior to proceeding, teams caring for the potential DCD patient in the ICU and the OR should review tools such as WLST, DCD checklists and the DCD protocol, which can provide structure and guidance for the nurses and the team.