References in periodicals archive ?
Through enhanced ISOEs (Wiersma, 2001), the WMSE hypothesizes targeted intervention outcomes (i.e., decreased trait anxiety, increased self-confidence, more desirable motivational styles, and increased athletic performance) as the primary results of the MST intervention.
This WMSE emphasizes that the personal control athletes can exert over process and performance goals should not only increase SRC, but should also promote greater EE.
Conversely, unhealthy stress levels can lower athletes' self-confidence, perceived competence, social enjoyment and overall desire to perform (Scanlan, 1992), prompting this WMSE to hypothesize a positive relationship between relaxation and ISOEs.
The WMSE hypothesizes that by increasing self-talk skills and effectively using them prior to and during practice and/or competition, athletes should experience increased EE, SRC, and decreased social pressure and stress (Hardy, 2006; Wankel, 1993), thus prompting positive competitive excitement.
The WMSE hypothesized that ISOEs should reduce unwanted trait anxiety levels that negatively affect intrinsic sport enjoyment as well as performance (Scanlan et al., 2003), yet increased ESOE may increase anxiety if athletes' place too much emphasis on ORC and support of others, which detracts from SRC and autonomy-supportive sources of enjoyment.
Within this WMSE, treatment athletes' self-confidence levels should benefit from development of ISOEs.
Athletic performance: Although there is no previous research examining the impact sport enjoyment on athletic performance, the WMSE hypothesized a positive relationship, with treatment athletes' greater use of process variables developing greater ISOEs that promote improved performance.
Following the MST Education, Acquisition, and Implementation Phase model (Burton and Raedeke, 2008; Masters, 2014), treatment athletes were introduced to traditional mental training skills, followed by an overview to this study's working intervention approach and WMSE.
Self-confidence: Perceived competence (Scanlan and Lewthwaite, 1986), or for the purposes of the WMSE self-referred competence (Wiersma, 2001) has been shown as a moderator of sport self-confidence (Martin and Gill, 1991), and was predicted to be a positive outcome in the WMSE, with the treatment group's increase in sport confidence (Shaffer and Wittes, 2006) supporting the positive link between ISOEs and sport confidence.