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Previously, various names were used in WOXs [8, 14-16,18-21]; we used the WOX names described by Zhang et al.
To examine sequence features of these WOX family proteins, we conducted multiple sequence alignment of 350 WOXs (Figure 2 and Supplementary Figure 1).
Motifs of WOXs. To further understand how WOX family evolved in plants and the protein sequence change, we selected 56 WOX members from model plants including Arabidopsis, rice, loblolly (Pinus taeda), S.
The multiple EM for motif elicitation tool (MEME, http://meme.nbcr.net/meme/) and Surveyed Conserved Motif Alignment Diagram and the Associating Dendrogram Database (SALAD database, http://salad/en/) were used to identify the similar motifs among WOXs. In addition to the homeodomain, a total of 7 motifs were observed in these members from the 56 WOX members (Figure 5(b) and Supplementary Table 3), and most of these motifs have not yet been characterized.
To understand the relationship between WOX function and evolutionary events, we analyze the three highly conserved residues in the homeodomain: L (145), I (152), and V (157) (Figures 2 and 6).
The presence of the homeodomain of the WOX proteins from in extant eukaryotes from the algae to flowering plants supported the previous hypothesis that this DNA-binding domain might be originated before the divergence of the eukaryotes .
Furthermore, all WOX members in the WUS clade except the subgroup WOX6 containing WOX members from coniferophyta were only observed in flowering plants, suggesting that the WUS clade plays a key role during the evolution of higher plants, and the WOX6 subgroup may represent the oldest subgroup in the WUS clade.
In addition, our phylogenetic analysis revealed that the ancient clade is the most ancient one and the WUS clade represents the latest members, which is consistent with previous analysis of WOX family in Arabidopsis  as well as other phylogenetic analyses [8,14,19-21].
We did linkage analysis on WOX amino acid sequences in the plant kingdom and showed the correlation between amino acids in the homeodomain region, suggesting the importance of these residues to the role of the homeodomain in WOX family.
In order to obtain a better alignment, we adjusted manually the results based on the location of the corresponding amino acids in the WOX motif using GeneDoc (version 2.6.002) software.
A phylogenetic tree using neighbor joining method was constructed with the aligned WOX protein family sequences by MEGA (version 3.0;).
The Rickshaw Challenge will be toughest yet, but I'm excited to get under wayLucy Wox
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- Woz Integrated Machine
- Wozchod Handelsbank
- Wozniak Stephen
- Wozniak, Stephen
- Wozniak, Stephen
- wozzle water
- wozzle waters
- WP Frith