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That the WPEA ultimately did pass is a testament, among other things, to the political resonance of public employee whistleblower protections.
creat[ed] loopholes that were contrary to Congressional intent," and WPEA closed those loopholes.); Interview with Louis Clark, supra note 120 (making similar points).
In addition to reversing the official duties exclusion, the WPEA reversed Federal Circuit holdings that had deemed disclosures unprotected if they were made "to a supervisor or to a person who participated in the [disclosed] activity," or "not...
(161) Regarding the president's discretionary exclusion power, the WPEA did enhance whistleblower protections by requiring "the determination be made prior to a personnel action." (162)
In an apparent effort to address some of the gaps in protection for members of the intelligence community remaining after the WPEA and ICWPA, President Obama signed Presidential Policy Directive 19 on October 10, 2012.
at 658 (asserting that the passage of the WPEA may lead to greater success in the future).
Like the WPEA, Congress enacted the National Defense Authorization Act (NDAA) in response to 9/11 and the military actions that followed.
where [Y.sub.i] denotes WPEA. Y is equal to 1 if women participate in economic activity and equal to zero if she does not.
Table 2 Definitions of Variables Variables Description Dependent Variable (for Probit Model) WPEA = 1 if the women either currently involved in economic activity for pay, profit or have worked in farms or shops, and 0 otherwise.
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