Most of previous works introduce interference-free based on multiple access technologies or complex timeslot allocation methods for clustered WSNs
-, but the clusters themselves are not interference-free.
are typically furnished with restricted vitality which makes them asset obliged.
Following a top-down approach, an overview of several new applications and the review of literature on various aspects of WSNs
is given in this paper and following problems are classified into three different categories: 1) internal platform and underlying operating system, 2) communication protocol stack, and 3) network services, provisioning, and deployment.
TOSSIM is the simulation tool of TinyOS , an operating system designed for resource constrained wireless devices, and it is used in WSNs
nodes such as those of the Mica family (from Crossbow) and Telos.
, LEACH, clustering, hierarchical protocols
In this section, we review the recent works dealing with the coverage preservation and network lifetime maximization in cluster based WSNs
. In , the authors proposed Deterministic Energy-efficient Clustering protocol (DEC) which uses residual energy of nodes to select cluster heads in a deterministic way.
By being inspired from time division multiple access (TDMA), two mainstream methods are used to achieve the mentioned goals in WSNs
Today's Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN
) are at the core of the Internet of Things (IoT).
As a result, medium complex algorithms such as linear combinations can now be implemented in ultra-low power WSNs
with significantly low processing energy cost.
The rest of this paper is organized as follows: Section 1 presents the background research on WSNs
. Section 2 discusses the pressure-sensitive mechanism of a SAW based on a micro force sensor.
are said to be fault tolerant if they remain functional after a failure of up to k - 1 sensors.
are a particular type of complex networks, scale-free networks and related theories also provide us with a new inspiration to establish a highly error-tolerant WSNs