Prioritizing phases for mitigation may help to optimize available resources if WVCs occur in predictable and localized areas.
Choosing where to site phased mitigation measures will be relatively straightforward if WVCs are clustered in space and predictable over time.
Across North America and Europe, increasing WVCs are a result of growing traffic volumes on secondary highways due to urban sprawl and increased commuter traffic (Kline & Swann 1998, Hansen & Brown 2005, Ramp et al.
Large trucks appear to be responsible for a disproportionate number of WVCs, in part due to the greater prevalence of truck traffic during early morning periods when large animals may be more active (Poll 1989).
We classified species into groups when WVCs for individual species were low (Table 1).
To assess the spatial distribution of WVCs within the context of realistic lengths of highway that could be considered for mitigation, we created hypothetical, continuous fence lengths of 2 km, 5 km, 10 km and 25 km.
The benefit of fencing was determined by first summing the total number of ungulate WVCs within each fence location and for each fence length.
A WVC would appoint the wife of a religious leader or tribal chief as honorary head of the organization.
WVC could use its influence to encourage village women to participate in their meetings and discussion groups to articulate their views and enlist their support in social and developmental projects.
Once a VC and WVC have been established and become instrumental in the process of rehabilitation and development, the international community should establish cordial working relationships with the two institutions and through them it could reach members of the civil society, especially women, and solicit their engagement in local development.