(5) The species included in the biomass indicator were Georges Bank Atlantic cod, Gulf of Maine Atlantic cod, Gulf of Maine haddock, southern New England yellowtail flounder, Gulf of Maine yellowtail flounder, American plaice, witch flounder
, Georges Bank winter flounder, southern New England/mid Atlantic winter flounder, white hake, and pollock.
Preliminary results with witch flounder larvae showed that this light intensity and light regime resulted in good growth and survival (Rabe, 1999).
Table 1 Definition of the modal action patterns (MAPs) observed in developing witch flounder larvae, after Barlow (1968).
We compared the lunge frequency of early ([is less than or equal to] 2 weeks) and late ([is greater than or equal to] 6 weeks) stage witch flounder larvae to that of yellowtail flounder (Pleuronectes ferrugineus) and Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) to examine differences in prey consumption rate between species.
[GRAPHS OMITTED] Table 2 Summary of ANOVA and ANCOVA results for growth and foraging response variables of witch flounder larvae at different prey densities (no.
Table 3 Percentage of witch flounder larvae reared at different prey densities ([+ or -] SE) that survived over the experiment.
The average lunge frequency of early- and late-stage witch flounder larvae was lower than that of both yellowtail flounder and Atlantic cod larvae (Fig.
Witch flounder larvae grew and survived in all treatments used in our study.
Witch flounder grew and survived equally well at each of the prey densities tested.
Witch flounder search strategy for prey is interesting because it appeared to change from a saltatory to a cruise strategy (see O'Brien et al., 1990; Browman and O'Brien, 1992) during the study period.
Observations of sinking in later-stage witch flounder larvae were not related to feeding events; the persistence of these behaviors in witch flounder was likely the result of some smaller, slower-growing individuals having been included in our observations.
Witch flounder, like other species (Holling, 1965; Houde and Schekter, 1980; Werner and Blaxter, 1980; Puvanendran and Brown, 1999), demonstrated increased foraging behavior with prey density.