The overarching expectation of academic interventions, typically expressed as an end-of-the-year goal, is not only to achieve said goal (e.g., 120 words read correctly per minute
[WPM]) but to do so at a pace that allows the student to be on par with his or her peers in a reasonable amount of time.
The child's score was calculated by the number of words read correctly per minute
. Reliability was calculated with the test-retest method (r = .77).
Table 1: Mean Words Read Correctly Per Minute
before, during and after VSM Mean Words Per Minute Pre-VSM During VSM Post-VSM Total Increase Ben 36.8 39.4 39.5 2.7 Matthew 27.8 35.3 38.5 10.7 Blake 44.8 50.6 53.6 8.8 Sienna 27.7 39.9 37.4 9.7 Table 2: Percentage of Non-Overlapping Data Points Percentage (%) of Non-Overlapping Data Points Pre-VSM to VSM Pre-VSM to Post-VSM Ben 25 29 Matthew 100 91 Blake 50 60 Sienna 100 75
Daniel's mean words read correctly per minute
(WCPM) during baseline was 24.6 with a decreasing slope of-1.1 words per week.
The process each day was the following: The student read the passage (as fast and as accurately as possible) and graphed the number of words read correctly per minute
By increasing words read correctly per minute
, a student may also increase overall reading achievement.
All students showed an increase in the number of words read correctly per minute
from the pretest to the posttest, as well as in the area of prosody.
Behavioral researchers have developed Curriculum-Based Measurement procedures, which measure rates of accurate overt responding (e.g., words read correctly per minute
Keisha did not meet the DIBELS benchmark of 50 sounds within nonsense words read correctly per minute
However, the student was given the opportunity to earn a reinforcer if he reached a target score for words read correctly per minute
for the generalization passage.
(c) Words read correctly per minute
. TABLE 2 Hierarchical Linear Modeling Unconditional Models: Intervention Aligned Word List and Oral Reading Fluency Fixed Effect Measure Coefficient SE t IAWL Intercept 11.239 1.408 7.984 * Slope 3.104 0.244 12.709 * ORF Intercept 44.866 3.598 12.469 * Slope 2.564 0.343 7.473 * Random Effect Measure Variance [X.sup.2](39) Reliability IAWL Intercept 73.517 546.638 * 0.927 Slope 1.738 148.246 * 0.728 ORF Intercept 495.388 912.622 * 0.956 Slope 2.166 74.791 * 0.460 Note.
It was also intended to measure the confidence in reading and overall fluency in number of words read correctly per minute
. The purpose of this program was to provide the low achieving students' with opportunities to practice and then perform a readers' theater script to a group of pre-kindergarten children.