The synergy between words and pictures in the nineteenth-century illustrations of Randolph Caldecott and the nonlinear text in Lewis Carroll's Alice books are similar to certain literary characteristics manifested in contemporary books influenced by the digital environment.
In any event, careful inspection of both words and pictures is recommended." This is a prototype of a book evidencing characteristics of the digital environment.
Through words and pictures, the reader is actively engaged in tracing events in all subsequent episodes back to those that take place in the first.
A book, therefore, may be described as graphic and contains no pictures other than the arrangement of the words the themselves, no words other than the words behind the pictures, or a combination of words and pictures.
The radical changes occurring in picture books for youth embrace a new level of synergy between words and pictures, a dramatic manifestation of this "unity on a higher level" to which Barthes referred, a more sophisticated, more complex interaction of discrete parts with a total effect, differing from the sum of the individual efforts or from the contribution of each part standing alone.
In Robie Harris and Michael Emberley's (1994) It's Perfectly Normal: A Book about Changing Bodies, Growing Up, Sex, and Sexual Health, words and pictures present a synergistic collage of information.
This synergy of words and pictures extends a step further.
The alteration in picture books cannot be entirely explained by this more intricate synergy of words and pictures. In its most radical form, it is the beginning of a "language" of nonverbal communication through pictures.
The study of the graphic novel extends the discussion beyond the relationship of words and pictures to the relationship of both to the space in between the panels which have neither.
What such approaches provide (in addition to sources and interpretations of specific art works) is an awareness that past cultural communities like the Renaissance might have been environments in which those who made words and pictures, as well as the patrons and connoisseurs of such enterprises, were themselves interconnected.
One of these acts is the issue upon which both the drama of words and pictures and the drama of Hamlet explode.