Musk extraction has occurred at XMDF since 1996 (Jiang, 1998) with musk harvesting usually occurring in October and March, in line with mating periods.
Total MER of captive male deer at XMDF was 90.30% (n = 732) and the AME ([+ or -] SE) was 7.90 [+ or -] 0.17 g (n = 732) with the range from 0.00 g to 34.20 g.
In the late 1990's, the captive population of musk deer at XMDF was established by capturing Alpine musk deer of all ages from the wild under authorized approval (Sheng and Liu, 2007).
Similar to captive Forested musk deer (Dai and Yin, 1990), this study also showed no significant association between musk production and the origin of an individual's parents, indicating musk production at XMDF may not be genetically determined.
This study showed that patterns of AME and MER in captive Alpine musk deer populations at XMDF varied with age.
At XMDF, captive deer were taken from the wild between 1996 and 1997.
Based on the literature on musk deer (Zhang, 1979; Green, 1987; Sheng and Ohtaishi, 1993), preliminary behavior observations were conducted to establish the ethogram of captive alpine musk deer at XMDF (Table I).
As no discernable behavior pattern is evident in captive musk deer, even after ten generations in captivity, we can presume that musk deer at XMDF have not been domesticated, and the current method of farming is not appropriate for increasing the domestication of alpine musk deer.
- PC data, including documents and maps, can be converted to XMDF
format, and can be viewed on the media tablet.
In XMDF, the fawning season of female captive alpine musk deer was from the early June to the end of July, musk secretion by males occurred mainly from early May to the end of July, the non-mating season (August to October) was the lactation period of females and the period of post musk secreting by males (Jiang, 1998; Mang et al., 2003b), hence the behavioural differences between the two sexes was related to their specific physical state.
In this research, we explored similar behavioural expression in XMDF, which implies that standing-gazing in captive alpine musk deer could reflect a form of heightened vigilance.
In XMDF, females were lactating and recovering energy during August and October (Meng et al., 2003b), and needed to increase their feeding intensity to compensate for the energy loss, and increased time and energy budgeting for lactation and nursing.