After an experimenter explained the YDS and YDQ, each patient completed the questionnaires.
In 2007, the YDQ was developed for objective measurement of the severity of a YD .
We also performed Pearson's correlation coefficient analysis to investigate relationships among the tongue indices and the YDQ and YDS scores.
Abbreviations CTDS: Computerized tongue diagnostic system TB: Tongue body area TB [a.sup.*]: The mean [a.sup.*] value for the tongue body area TCM: Traditional Chinese medicine TKM: Traditional Korean medicine WT: Whole tongue area WT [a.sup.*]: The mean [a.sup.*] value for the whole tongue area YD: Yin deficiency YDS: Yin-Deficiency Scale YDQ: Yin-Deficiency Questionnaire.
The 8-item YDQ was used to assess internet addiction.
A previous study in China found good internal consistency of the 8 items (Cronbach's alpha=0.82), but compared to a gold standard clinical diagnosis of internet addiction (using the YDQ results based on a psychiatrist's interview of the subject and the subject's family members) the sensitivity of the self-completed version of the scale was quite poor (25%).
Individuals who met the criteria of internet addiction described above were classified as having concurrent internet-related social dysfunction if (a) YDQ item 6 was one of the symptoms they endorsed ("Have you jeopardized or risked the loss of a significant relationship, job, educational opportunity, or career opportunity because of the internet?") and (b) they were not able to work or attend school due to problems related to internet use for 6 days or more each month for at least 3 months prior to the evaluation.