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YNQYesterdays New Quintet (band)
YNQYes or No Question
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(23) Pretag Tag IP IP declarative YNQ intonation intonation Tags have been reported to behave in a similar fashion in other languages.
An echo question is either in the form of a YNQ or a WHQ, and is segmentally identical to the neutral version of that question.
Examples (36) and (35), a YNQ (in this example with a focused direct object) and an echo WHQ respectively, which are segmentally almost equal, share the same intonation contour.
(10) In Russian, the greatest prominence is on the noun following the verb for declaratives, and on the verb for the corresponding YNQ (Ladd 2008).
(19) The echo YNQ in (41) also has a less common pronunciation with a high AP boundary tone on the direct object.
This is done with the help of 5 native speakers who read a total of 392 utterances designed for this paper and composed of the following question types: yes/no questions (YNQs) (with and without a question particle aya), leading YNQs (with the particle moege), YNQs with the adverb hic, tag questions, single and multiple WH-questions (WHQs), echo questions, and contrastive focus YNQs and WHQs.
The study involves ordinary and leading YNQs, YNQs with the question particle aya and those with the adverb hic, tag questions, single and multiple WHQs, and echo questions.
According to Cruttenden (1997), YNQs may be grammatically marked in languages in different ways: by particles, by verb morphology, by word order, and through intonation.
Apart from the phonological difference of the IP boundary tone, there are three phonetic differences between declaratives and YNQs. The first is related to the scaling of the H* which is realized higher in YNQs, hence a greater pitch excursion (H-L).
The existence of a higher pitch and/or a (final) rise in YNQs is common in other languages as well, for instance, American English, Swedish, Thai, Vietnamese (Hirst and Di Cristo 1998), European Portuguese (Frota 2002b), Mandarin Chinese (Zeng et al.