Geer reveals, however, that: "The Selous Scouts did not comply with this directive [the specific orders to take captive and bring back hospitalised and diseased patients from ZANLA
bases in Mozambique].
In contrast, ZANLA
had much larger numbers, but minimal artillery and no air support, and hence found it difficult to sustain a prolonged firefight.
He, together with his two Bushman trackers, used their combined big game hunting expertise to track down and to engage what the Rhodesians called the ZANLA
Nhongo-Simbanegavi (2000:79) discovered that prior to 1978, the liberation war forces operating in the ZANLA
operational zones were mostly male and for the most part the females remained in the rear base camps.
There is historical evidence which attest to the presence of female combatants amongst ZANLA
and ZIPRA forces in Mozambique.
It could also be argued that in terms of their employment as 'political pawns' by ZANU (PF), they have in fact come full circle as Kriger neatly summed it up: 'The parallels between ZANU (PF)'s use of ZANLA
veterans in the early 1980s and in 2000 are striking ...
ZANU's military wing, the ZANLA
, was headed by Robert Mugabe and represented the Shona tribes while ZAPU and its military wing ZIPRA consisted mainly of Ndebele ethnic groups under Joshua Nkomo.
A unified army was created by combining the Zimbabwe African National Liberation Army (ZANLA
), the Zimbabwe Peoples' Revolutionary Army (ZIPRA), and the Rhodesian Security Forces (RSF).
Haar ondervinding en kritiek oor die misbruik van vroue en die algemene wreedheid wat deur die bevrydingsweermag ZANLA
se vryheidsvegters in die kamp in Lusaka gebruik is, het later dieselfde jaar daartoe gelei dat sy uit die party geskors is en op hul moordlys geplaas is.
While he outlines the tensions that always existed between Robert Mugabe and Joshua Nkomo and makes reference to Ndabaningi Sithole, Leopold Takawira and Josiah Tongogara--there is no mention of Herbert Chitepo, a founder-member of Zanu who was largely responsible for the formation of Zanla
(Zanu's military wing) and developing its strategies.
Thus the Zimbabwe African National Liberation Army (ZANLA
) was associated with Zanu and the Zimbabwe People's Revolutionary Army (ZIPRA) with Nkomo's Zapu.