a-Si:HHydrogenated Amorphous Silicon
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The yearly average energy outputs of the systems were 8831.1 kWh, 9556 kWh, 8584.4 kWh, 9570 kWh, 9411.2 kWh, 9606 kWh, and 8424.1 kWh for m-Si, p-Si, EFG-Si, CdTe, CIS, HIT, and a-Si:H systems, respectively.
2 shows the defect density curves of the a-Si:H (i) layer which is used in the structure.
The highest peaks were around 2[theta] = 28.5[degrees] and correspond to Si (111) which indicates that the crystallization of a-Si:H is obtained in the AIC specimens even for the low annealing temperature of 350[degrees]C with annealing time of 15, 30, 45, and 60 min, respectively.
Thus, if a matrix of 480 x 640 pixels is considered, [C.sub.L] will be estimated as 640 x [C.sub.tft] where [C.sub.tft] represents the gate capacitance of an a-Si:H TFT.
Wafers in group B followed the same process as that for group A except that the wafers were deposited to form an a-Si:H film of ~5nm (4.8 nm, more correctly) thickness on the front surface prior to the phosphorus diffusion.
Intrinsic a-Si:H thin films were grown using Si[H.sub.4]/[H.sub.2] gas mixtures that were approximately 350 nm thick at 200[degrees]C.
Guha, "Status of nc-Si:H solar cells at United Solar and roadmap for manufacturing a-Si:H and nc-Si:H based solar panels in amorphous and polycrystalline thin-film silicon science and technology 2007" in Materials Research Society Symposium Proceeding, V Chu, K.
Yoon, "Effect of hydrogen dilution on intrinsic a-Si:H layer between emitter and Si wafer in silicon heterojunction solar cell," Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells, vol.
Ivanda, "Microstructural properties of dc magnetron sputtered a-Si:H by IR spectroscopy," Journal of Non-Crystalline Solids, vol.
Advanced optical modeling predicts that light trapping methods, such as texturing the superstrate of thin-film solar cells, can maintain high photocurrents in very thin a-Si:H solar cells [3].
Way to avoid [V.sub.oc] losses on textured surface which are compulsory for light trapping is to use n type a-Si:H layer, which is less sensitive to substrates morphology and materials.