There is a further parameter that needs to be taken into account, and which appears directly relevant to the question of the status of participles used in conjunction with perception verbs: that of the possibility for a participle to agree with the accusative
nouns or adjectives, that appear with object-like dependents in the accusative
case, that is in a configuration traditionally associated with the verbal system and called "transitive.
The lack of ACCUSATIVE
case assignment is different in (10) and in (11).
The impersonal reflexive is higher in transitivity than the reflexive passive, having an accusative
argument in its structure.
F's traditum may have been the result of an abbreviation, of which there were several in this sentence with its many accusatives
(thus GCA 1995, 37 ad loc.
Thus, in Turkish, the subject of the intransitive in (35a) corresponds to the accusative
in the derived causative of (35b), and the subject of the transitive in (35c) corresponds to the dative of (35d), with the identity of the accusative
being constant between the two constructions; but causativization of the ditransitive in (35e) presents a problem for the participant-differentiating morphological resources of the language:
In Eastern Mansi this means that the Patient is in the accusative
case or unmarked (nominative), and the Recipient in the lative.
In English, prepositions take the accusative
case," he says.
For example, a nominative NP, a locative NP, a dative NP and an accusative
NP may all depend on a verb to follow.
And the best thing to do if caught in an accusative
situation is to empathise and try to immediately improve it, he says.
Seventy-seven case studies address, for example, the accusative
plus infinitive construction in English, comparative deletion and subdeletion, inverse linking, logophoricity, preposition stranding, quantifier scope ambiguities, split topicalization, stylistics fronting, temporal reference, topicalization in Asian languages, verb particle constructions, and wh-in-situ, among other topics.
Like the energic they can be followed by a pronoun from the object series, (9) anna-ka 'that you'; they are neutrally followed by an accusative
complement if nominal rather than pronominal; and anna itself marks an object complement.