Abbreviations: Acetyl CoA
, acetyl coenzyme A; ACL, ATP citrate lyase; HAT, histone acetyltransferase; HDAC, histone deacetylase; PARP, poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1.
Hence all four isoenzymes likely utilize acetyl CoA
Further, fatty acid synthesis inhibitors (TOFA, C75) precluded incorporation of glucose-derived acetyl CoAs
into fatty acids, and thus intracellular glucose increased to near extracellular levels.
Brouns, 1998, Y.Feng, 2001).It also increases conversion of piruvate by piruvate decarboxilase to acetyl CoA
by increasing the use of free coenzyme A (Co A).
The reductive acetyl-CoA pathway is characterized by the presence of the key enzyme complex acetyl CoA
synthetase, which also catalyzes the oxidation of CO to [CO.sub.2].
Statistically significant differences in acetyl CoA
activity in either the mammary gland or the liver were by comparison with rats fed the semisynthetic diet.
Phosphorylation of both acetyl CoA
carboxylase and AMP-activated protein kinase was increased, thus explaining the increase in fatty acid oxidation.
HMG CoA reductase regulates the synthesis of steroids from acetyl CoA
and is a rate limiting step in the synthesis of cholesterol (15) when substrate is available there should be an increase in the activity of enzyme.
The recent observation showing acetylation of proteins by calreticulin (an endoplasmic reticulum resident protein) with a high efficiency when polyphenolic acetates are the acetyl group donating molecules and acetyl CoA
as weak substrate extends the realm of protein acetylation beyond HAT/HDAC combination.
These include acetyl CoA
carboxylase, the rate limiting enzyme that initiates fatty acid synthesis.
One possible hint is that the statins block an early step in the enzymatic pathway that eventually turns acetyl CoA
into cholesterol, while the nitrogen-containing bisphosphonates--alendronate and risedronate--block a step that occurs later in this pathway.