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Related to acute disseminated encephalomyelitis: Acute Hemorrhagic Leukoencephalitis
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ADEMAcute Disseminated Encephalomyelitis
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Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis and MS share a great deal of pathological and clinical similarities, but it is still unclear why some patients are affected by fulminant monophasic inflammatory process, whereas other patients suffer chronic polyphasic process (18).
Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) is an acquired demyelinating disorder of central nervous system caused by immune mediated phenomenon triggered by antecedent viral or bacterial infection.
Gouveia et al., "Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis: Clinical features, HLA DRB1*1501, HLA DRB1*1503, HLA DQA1*0102, HLA DQB1*0602, and HLA DPA1*0301 allelic association study," Arquivos de Neuro-Psiquiatria, vol.
Meningoencephalitis and acute disseminated encephalomyelitis were primarily considered in our patient because of sleepiness and slurred speech; investigations were performed and these prediagnoses were excluded.
Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) is an inflammatory demyelinating disorder of the central nervous system (CNS) predominantly affecting the white matter of brain and spinal cord.
(3,5,6,10,11) The other causes are neurologic (multiple sclerosis and acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, for example), traumatic, infectious (such as human T-lymphotrophic virus-1, HIV, tuberculosis, and syphilis), vascular (acute spinal cord infarction), nutritional deficiencies (copper and Vitamin B12, for example), and paraneoplastic causes--those who have collapsing response mediator protein 5 (CRMP5) also known as CV2 in particular (5,6); ampiphysin-IgG, which is known to be commonly associated with small cell lung cancer and breast cancer, had reportedly been detected in the sera of patients with rapidly progressive myelopathy and LETM on imaging.
Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis or post infectious encephalomyelitis is an immunologically mediated demyelinating disorder affecting the central nervous system after infection or vaccination.
Three patients who received the high-dose vaccine had serious adverse events considered to be related to vaccination: One developed cranial-nerve VI palsy the day after the injection; one developed hypovolemic shock from diarrhea that started the day after the injection; and one developed acute disseminated encephalomyelitis that began 117 days after vaccination.
Common causes of HIV-associated optic neuropathy Immune mediated Isolated seroconversion optic neuritis Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis Infectious optic neuritis Bacterial: syphilis, tuberculosis Viral: cytomegalovirus, varicella zoster virus, herpes simplex virus Parasitic: toxoplasmosis Fungal: cryptococcal meningitis Raised intracranial pressure Cryptococcal-induced optic neuropathy Infiltrative optic neuropathy Lymphoma Nutritional optic neuropathy Vitamin [B.sub.12] deficiency Drug induced Ethambutol Antiretrovirals
Hemiparesis was due to CVA (infarct) in 2 patients & due to complication of CNS tuberculosis in 2 patients, 1 patient of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis & due to ICSOL in 2 patients, Paraparesis (due to acute disseminated encephalomyelitis) in 1, and quadriparesis (peripheral neuropathy) in 3 patients.
Acute Disseminated Encephalomyelitis. Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis is a monophasic postinfectious or postvaccination disorder not requiring long-term treatment.
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