Table 1: PBL on acute glomerulonephritis
: learning objectives S.N.
It is possible that the physiopathology of these rare cases of glomerulonephritis associated to hepatitis A virus infection derive immunologically from reactions similar to acute glomerulonephritis
. These reactions can occur with other viral infections.
Antibiotics are not used for acute glomerulonephritis
, but they are important in treating other forms of disease related to infection.
In the present study, the histopathological features & immunofluorescence pattern of renal biopsies in patients who presented with features of Acute Glomerulonephritis
were analysed and diagnosis was established.
Group A streptococci are extracellular, Gram-positive pathogens responsible for pharyngitis, impetigo, scarlet fever, rheumatic fever and acute glomerulonephritis
. Scarlet fever, which is rare nowadays owing to frequent antibiotic prescriptions in children, is caused by a toxin-producing Group A [beta]-haemolytic streptococcus found in secretions from the nose, throat, ears and skin.
Here, a 13-year old girl who developed both acute glomerulonephritis
and hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis in relation with Salmonella spp.
The most common form of acute glomerulonephritis
in children is poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis (PSGN) which usually occurs between 3 and 12 years old.
It is useful in edema due to various forms of renal dysfunction, including nephrotic syndrome, acute glomerulonephritis
and chronic renal failure.
Other factors leading to ARF included volume depletion in 19 (20%) cardio renal in 13 (13.7%) acute glomerulonephritis
in 3 (3.15%) and contrast exposure in 2 (2.1%) patients.
There are various histopathological alterations reported in renal biopsy from ARF caused by acute malaria including acute tubular necrosis, acute glomerulonephritis
, mesangioproliferative glomerulonephritis (MPGN) and membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis (in chronic malaria) (18-22).
The aetiology of ARF in the study was as follows: ATN 38 (82%), acute glomerulonephritis
4 (8.6%), malignant hypertension 3 (6.5%) and vasculitis 1 (2.2%).
Potential Causes of Gross Hematuria SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS POSSIBLE DIAGNOSES Hemoglobinuria hemolytic disorder Myoglobinuria, cramping, weakness rhabdomyolysis Abdominal mass Wilms' tumor, hydronephrosis, ectopic kidney (rare) Hemoglobinopathy sickle cell disease, sickle cell trait, sickle cell thalassemia Recent group A strep infection acute glomerulonephritis
Recent upper respiratory tract IgA nephropathy infection Dysuria with or without urinary urinary tract infection, frequency hypercalciuria Renal colic nephrolithiasis, ureteropelvic junction obstruction Terminal hematuria/dysuria cystitis, urethritis Hypertension, edema, glomerular disease proteinuria, oliguria, low C3 Source: Dr.