Botulinum toxin treatment of adductor spasmodic dysphonia
: longitudinal functional outcomes.
(43.) Daniel Novakovic et al., "Botulinum Toxin Treatment of Adductor Spasmodic Dysphonia: Longitudinal Functional Outcomes," The Laryngoscope 121, no.
Kahane, and Lesya Chorna, "Vocal Aging and Adductor Spasmodic Dysphonia: Response to Botulinum Toxin Injection," Clinical Interventions in Aging 3, no.
Selective lateral laser thyroarytenoid myotomy for adductor spasmodic dysphonia
. The Journal of Laryngology & Otology, 124(8), 886-891.
Outcomes of type II thyroplasty for adductor spasmodic dysphonia: analysis of revision and unsatisfactory cases.
Surgical tips for type II thyroplasty for adductor spasmodic dysphonia: modified technique after review unsatisfactory cases.
Doubleblind controlled study of botulinum toxin in adductor spasmodic dysphonia. Laryngoscope 1991; 101:630-4.
Comparison of botulinum toxin injection procedures in adductor spasmodic dysphonia. J Otolaryngol 1995; 24:345-51.
As with adductor spasmodic dysphonia
, the spasms are often absent during activities such as laughing or singing.
Combined modality treatment of adductor spasmodic dysphonia
. J Voice.
Blitzer and Brin first began injecting 2.5 MU unilaterally in patients with adductor spasmodic dysphonia, but they eventually came to believe that this amount had little effect.
In general, patients with adductor spasmodic dysphonia who receive botulinum toxin for the first time should be given a low dose--approximately 1.25 to 2.5 MU bilaterally or 10 to 20 MU unilaterally.