15 (.09) * 1.08 (.01) * Apo[E.sup.-/-] Exercise 1.43 (.07) (@#) 1.22 (.07) (@#) Group AMPK P-AMPK C57 Control .43 (.01) .48 (.11) C57 Exercise .67 (.10) * .64 (.31) Apo[E.sup.-/-] Control .62 (.07) * .43 (.02) Apo[E.sup.-/-] Exercise .91 (.10) (@#) .99 (.07) (@##) AdipoR1, adiponectin receptor 1; PPAR[alpha], peroxisome proliferator/ activated receptor alpha; AMPK, adenosine monophosphate
activated protein kinase; P/AMPK, phosphorylated adenosine monophosphate
activated protein kinase; * compared with the C57 control group, p < 0.05; (#) compared with the Apo[E.sup.-/-] control group, p < 0.05; (##) compared with the Apo[E.sup.-/-] control group, p < 0.01; (@) compared with the C57 exercise group, p < 0.05.
Caption: Short chains of adenosine monophosphate
(AMP) --a nucleotide base for both DNA and RNA --can form the double helix shown above (the grey spheres represent ammonium ions.) Unlike DNA, the strands of this helix are parallel and formed of A-A base pairs.
Abbreviations: cAMP, cyclic adenosine monophosphate
; cGMP, cyclic guanosine monophosphate; db-cGMP, dibutyryl 3':5' -cyclic guanosine monophosphate; GC-S, soluble guanylyl cyclase; LCS, low-calcium saline; LY83583, 6-alilino-5, 8-quinolinedione; NCS, normal calcium saline; NO, nitric oxide; RPCH, red pigment concentrating hormone; SIN-1, 3-morpholinosydnonimine; SNP, sodium nitroprusside; STa, Escherichia coli heat-stable enterotoxin; ZnPP-XI.
Cells obtain energy from conversion of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) to adenosine monophosphate
Indicators for cyclic AMP (adenosine monophosphate
), pH, phosphorylation, and calcium, among others, are widely used in laboratories today.
Dictyostelium discoideum is a eukaryotic microorganism found in deciduous forest soil and decaying leaves that develop as independent single cells until the exhaustion of bacterial food supply triggers a process in which up to 100,000 cells aggregate by chemotaxis towards cAMP (cyclic adenosine monophosphate
), culminating in morphogenesis and cell differentiation in the production of spores which enables the organism to survive unfavorable conditions.
The mutation leads to a loss of guanosine triphosphatase activity and thus to adenyl cyclase overactivity and subsequent overproduction of cyclic adenosine monophosphate
Atto's products include: the Pathway HT confocal, single-cell imaging system for kinetic and endpoint assay formats; the ACT:ONE scalable cAMP (Cyclic adenosine monophosphate
) biosensor for high-throughput screening of GPCRs; and the CARV confocal adaptor for conversion of epifluorescence microscopes to confocal imaging systems.
THE EFFECT OF LOWERING CELLULAR LEVELS OF CYCLIC ADENOSINE MONOPHOSPHATE
ON THE CYTOTOXIC FUNCTION OF HUMAN NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
The parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) and urinary cyclic adenosine monophosphate
levels were not determined.
One mutant called cheapdate affects a signaling system that plays a role in many regulatory processes in a cell and which involves the compound cyclic adenosine monophosphate
Adenylic acid, also known as adenosine monophosphate
(AMP), is one of the nucleotides that make up the molecular chains of nucleic acids.