Intrapartum fetal heart rate (FHR) monitoring is done either by intermittent auscultation
(IA) or Electronic Fetal Monitoring (EFM).
A 2006 Cochrane review concluded that, compared with intermittent auscultation
, the only benefit of intrapartum EFM was a reduction in the incidence of seizures in the early neonatal period
remains the earliest and simplest way to identify this problem intra-operatively before any significant adverse event occurs.
Admission electronic fetal monitoring did not decrease neonatal morbidity and mortality compared with intermittent auscultation
revealed rhonchi in both lung fields (greater in the right) and a loud transmitted upper airway noise.
This text and audio CD provide all the essential information needed to interpret cardiopulmonary auscultation
for accurate, efficient patient care.
Four of the six HMPV-positive children required hospitalization: a 7-month-old boy with pulmonary bronchodysplasia, rhinitis, and fever of 38.4[degrees]C (patient 1); a 20-month-old girl with previous obstructive pulmonary disease who had acute respiratory insufficiency along with generalized hypoventilation, crackles, wheezing, and radiologic images of air entrapment requiring bronchodilator administration (patient 2); a 16-month-old girl who had a febrile syndrome, basal crackles on pulmonary auscultation
, and perihilar infiltrates (patient 3); and an 11-month-old boy with pneumonia of the upper left lobe (patient 4).
On initial physical examination, her temperature was 38.9[degrees]C with a respiratory rate of 40 per min, with no rales at lung auscultation
. Initial laboratory tests showed a leukocyte count of 1,800 X [10.sup.9] cells/L with 25% neutrophils and 3% band forms.