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Ultrasound-guided botulinum toxin injections for treatment of drooling.
Various treatments have been reported for bruxism, including intraoral guards, drugs (benzodiazepines, dopamine agents, antidepressants, muscle relaxants, and beta blockers), botulinum toxin injection, dental surgery, psychosocial interventions (i.
Medical researchers now are evaluating the possible therapeutic use of botulinum toxin in vocal dysphonias (Mendelsohn & Berke, 2012), migraine (Oterino, Rarino, & Pascual, 2011), allergic rhinitis, myofascial pain syndrome, and many other conditions (Felber, 2006).
Conclusion: Botulinum toxin is a useful remedy for Benign Essential Blepharospasm (BEB) although the effects are short term and repeated applications are required which is quite costly for the patient.
Ward, PhD, at Case Western Reserve University in Cleveland, found promising results using botulinum toxin type A to target psoriasis.
One experiment used botulinum toxin on ten depressed patients.
A Counterfeit Botulinum Toxin Type A is reportedly being used.
Anaesthetists can expect to encounter an increasing number of patients who have undergone facial injection of botulinum toxin.
The pros and cons of injecting botulinum toxin were discussed with the patient who were very receptive with this idea which targeted their chief complaints of gummy smile.
To reduce the rate and severity of local reactions, vaccinees with continued potential for occupational exposure to botulinum toxins were given booster injections at the 2-year interval only if a 1:16 dilution of their serum did not protect mice in serotypes B and E toxin challenge studies (indicative of an antibody concentration of >0.
Botulinum toxin A should not be first-line therapy for overactive bladder.