It has but established new classes, new conditions of oppression, new forms of struggle in place of the old ones.
At a certain stage in the development of these means of production and of exchange, the conditions under which feudal society produced and exchanged, the feudal organisation of agriculture and manufacturing industry, in one word, the feudal relations of property became no longer compatible with the already developed productive forces; they became so many fetters.
The author of the 'Vestiges of Creation' would, I presume, say that, after a certain unknown number of generations, some bird had given birth to a woodpecker, and some plant to the misseltoe, and that these had been produced perfect as we now see them; but this assumption seems to me to be no explanation, for it leaves the case of the coadaptations of organic beings to each other and to their physical conditions of life, untouched and unexplained.
As many more individuals of each species are born than can possibly survive; and as, consequently, there is a frequently recurring struggle for existence, it follows that any being, if it vary however slightly in any manner profitable to itself, under the complex and sometimes varying conditions of life, will have a better chance of surviving, and thus be naturally selected.
All conditions, therefore, of this kind, if caused by certain permanent and lasting affections, are called affective qualities.
Those conditions, however, which arise from causes which may easily be rendered ineffective or speedily removed, are called, not qualities, but affections: for we are not said to be such virtue of them.
The French army melted away and perished at the same rate from Moscow to Vyazma, from Vyazma to Smolensk, from Smolensk to the Berezina, and from the Berezina to Vilna- independently of the greater or lesser intensity of the cold, the pursuit, the barring of the way, or any other particular conditions
. Beyond Vyazma the French army instead of moving in three columns huddled together into one mass, and so went on to the end.
`But with this change in condition comes inevitably adaptations to the change.
The work of ameliorating the conditions of life--the true civilizing process that makes life more and more secure--had gone steadily on to a climax.
If we know that the enemy is open to attack, but are unaware that our own men are not in a condition to attack, we have gone only halfway towards victory.
If we know that the enemy is open to attack, and also know that our men are in a condition to attack, but are unaware that the nature of the ground makes fighting impracticable, we have still gone only halfway towards victory.
Under the difficulties of the then existing conditions
he strove for that, and for that alone, putting his faith into practice against every risk.