When [d.sub.b](T + 1) < [d.sub.b](t) and the target is in the area of [S.sub.0] = [S.sub.a] [intersection] [S.sub.b], [s.sub.b] has the ability to take over the detecting task, and it can be cued
It was hypothesized that saccade latency would be dependent on cue direction, such that the modified pre-cuing paradigm would produce an attentional enhancement and a decrease in saccade latency when the cued
location and the stimulus presentation location were the same.
In the context of the reorienting hypothesis, the central fixation cue is usually named "cue-back" because it is supposed to attract attention back to the centre, thus inhibiting the return of attention to the cued
The faces were looking towards the centre so that at cue onset, the cue and cued
faces would be looking at each other.
Here the unexpected nuclear devices were always presented concurrently with, and within 15[degrees] of, an expected target, and the expected target in this case was always cued
accurately (although half the time the cue was dashed, signaling one of the two different levels of imprecision).
Lambert, Spencer, and Mohindra (1987), for example, found that the degree of attention capture elicited by a peripheral cue which indicated likely contralateral target appearance was reduced when participants were informed that the target was unlikely to appear at the cued
location (relative to the group of participants who were not informed of the contingent relationship between cue and target locations).
Previous studies have examined the effects of imperfect cuing systems, including missed targets and/or cued
nontargets (e.g., Skitka et al., 1999; Wickens, Conejo, & Gempler, 1990: Wickens, Gempler, & Morphew, 2000: Yeh & Wickens, 2000, 2001; Yeh, Wickens, & Seagull, 1998).
The result typically observed is a facilitation effect; that is, a reduction in reaction time (RT) and/or an increase in accuracy (AC) to detect, discriminate, or localize targets that appear at the cued
location relative to those appearing at the location opposite the cue.
Sometimes their detection was aided by cuing, but not all targets were cued
, and occasionally nontargets were cued
In turn, the symbolic cueing effect occurs because the presence of attentional resources facilitates perception of validly cued
targets relative to invalidly cued
trials a cue was presented to signal the current lateral and vertical location of a target with respect to the participant's head orientation.