EIPV laws--now in place in thirty-three states and D.C.--are premised on the idea that a far better way to increase the turnout of already-registered voters is to replicate or "clone" even more versions of the traditional policy place.
And in key EIPV states where Sunday voting is allowed, Democratic get-out-the-vote operatives have organized "Souls to the Polls" efforts that encourage their voters (especially African Americans) to perform their civic duty right after Sunday church services.
In recent years, conservative Republican legislators in states like North Carolina, Florida, and Ohio have worked hard to roll back existing EIPV laws, especially weekend voting.
Conservative opposition seems to have caused Democrats and their progressive allies to embrace EIPV all the more (in stark contrast to UVBM).
The average active registered voter turnout for the top ten EIPV states is 47 percent, 1 percent below the national average.
Since the first case was identified, public health officials in the Netherlands have initiated intensive efforts to vaccinate members of the groups at risk, including one dose of trivalent OPV to persons aged <41 years who have never been vaccinated and one dose of diphtheria and tetanus toxoids and poliovirus vaccine or eIPV to persons <41 years who were incompletely vaccinated.
Recent studies in the Netherlands indicate that more than 97% of infants receive the first three doses of eIPV, and more than 94% receive all five doses of eIPV by the age of 1 year.
Recommendations include a primary series of three doses of OPV for unvaccinated persons aged <18 years, three doses of eIPV for unvaccinated persons aged [is greater than or equal to] 18 years, and either OPV or eIPV for incompletely vaccinated persons aged [is greater than or equal to] 18 years.
In four studies of responses to eIPV after two doses given to infants during the first year of life and a third dose given between 12 and 20 months of age, 99%-100% of infants developed circulating, poliovirus-neutralizing antibodies within `1-3 months.
But no data show that three eIPV doses can induce long-lasting immunity.
In light of recent outbreaks of neurovirulent poliovirus in the Western Hemisphere--in the Dominican Republic and Haiti (MMWR 49:1094, 1103, 2000)--the working group felt that it would be unwise to advise switching from a four-dose to a three-dose series of eIPV, he said.