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Its two-amino content works best for Comfort Cravers who are fatigued, because L-phenylalanine is somewhat energizing (as it converts in part to tyrosine) as well as being an essential component of the endorphin subtype, enkephalin.
Kaelin-Lang, "Enkephalin and dynorphin neuropeptides are differently correlated with locomotor hypersensitivity and levodopa-induced dyskinesia in parkinsonian rats," Experimental Neurology, vol.
These lead to overactivation of dopaminergic system, reducing endogenous enkephalin levels, and then compensatory increase of [mu]-opioid receptor capacity, increasing glutamate, and P substances release, enhancing afferent nociceptive impulse, and ultimately tolerance to pain decreased and pain sensitivity increased [11, 12].
Acupuncture and EA have been shown to regulate brain function by mediating neurotransmitters and neuropeptides in the CNS; furthermore, the induced peptide is dependent on EA frequency (e.g., 2 Hz EA induces enkephalin and [beta]-endomorphin, 100 Hz EA induces dynorphin, and 15 Hz EA induces enkephalin, [beta]-endomorphin, and dynorphin) [13].
In this way, the spinal cord, midbrain, and hypothalamic-pituitary axis are activated and present their analgesic effects through releasing enkephalin and endorphin [22].
Alterations in beta endorphins and enkephalin secretion are also reported in vitiligo patients.
The researchers discovered that the gene encoding one of the key endogenous opioids, enkephalin, was expressed at a higher level in the offspring of mothers, who had consumed a junk food diet than in the offspring of mothers who ate standard rat feed.
Cathecolamines (epinephrine and norepinephrine) and more than thirty biologically active peptides (neuropeptide Y, dopamine, chromogranins A, B, C, methionine, calcitonin gene-related peptide, leucine, enkephalin, substance P, synaptophysine, endotelins, adrenomedullin, interleukin-1) are stored in coated granules within the chromaffin cells and are delivered through cellular depolarization and exocytosis via adrenal vein into the circulating blood (Colomer 2009).
Enkephalin, thyrotropin-releasing hormone and substance P immunoreactive azonal innervation of the ventrolateral dendritic bundle in the cat sacral spinal cord: an ultrastructural study.
Gibbins, "Target-related patterns of co-existence of neuropeptide Y, vasoactive intestinal peptide, enkephalin and substance P in cranial parasympathetic neurons innervating the facial skin and exocrine glands of guinea-pigs," Neuroscience, vol.38, no.2, pp.541-560,1990.
The researchers also found that enkephalin, the natural drug-like chemical produced in that same brain region, surged when rats began to eat the candy-coated morsels, too.