One of the few examples of medical uses is the dinoflagellate toxin, gonyautoxin
(Garrido et al., 2005).
Binding was achieved for two of the major saxitoxin components of PSP, saxitoxin (STX) and gonyautoxin
2/3 (GTX), via two different binding protocols.
Newer agents like gonyautoxin
, which is a paralytic neurotoxin is also been tested.
5 was not observed, and dcNEO was detected only in 1 of the snail samples.
PSP toxins consist of a suite of neurotoxins identified as saxitoxin, gonyautoxin
, and their derivatives.
According to Oshima (1995), there are 30 saxitoxin analogs in this group, with differences in toxicity and time course of action, including N-1 hydroxysaxitoxin or neosaxitoxin (neoSTX), the 11-sulfate analogs of SIX and neoSTX called gonyautoxins
(GTX) and the 6N21 sulfo derivatives of STX, neoSTX and GTX toxins B1, B2 and C1 to C4 (Mahmood and Carmichael 1986; Chorus and Bartram 1999).
(GTX1, GTX2, 2003 GTX3 and GTX4); 2000-2001 Saxitoxin (STX).
The toxin profile of this strain was characterized as primarily producing gonyautoxins
(GTX) 1&4, with low levels of GTX 2&3 and saxitoxin observed (Negri et al.
Certified reference materials (CRM) used were decarbamoyl saxitoxin (dcSTX), neosaxitoxin (NEO), saxitoxin di-hydrochloride (STX), gonyautoxins
1-5 (GTX1-5), A'-sulfocarbamoyl-gonyautoxins 2 and 3 (C1&2), decarbamoylneosaxitoxin (dcNEO), and decarbamoyl gonyautoxins
2 and 3 (dcGTX2&3).