The expression of LL37 and human [sz]-defensins 2 (hBD2) in skin tissues was measured by immunohistochemistry.
In addition, we found that hBD2 expression was increased in lesions of patients with AD-like GVHD and LP-like GVHD, and hBD2 mRNA expression was also increased in lesions of patients with AD-like GVHD and LP-like GVHD.
PCR was performed in a final volume of 25 [micro]l containing 1 [micro]l of the reverse transcription reaction, 50 [micro]M deoxynucleotide triphosphates, 1.5 mM Mg[Cl.sub.2], 50 mM Tris-HCl (pH 8.0), 1 IU Taq DNA polymerase, and 0.2 [micro]M each of sense and antisense of defensin (hBD2 and hBD4) or cytokine (IL8 and IL6) primers (see sequences below).
Relative quantities of hBD2, hBD4, IL8, and IL6 mRNA among different preparations were calculated as the ratio of the hBD2/[beta]-actin, hBD4/[beta]-actin, IL8/[beta]-actin, and IL6/[beta]-actin pixel intensities from three independent RT-PCR experiments.
Trefoil factor 3 isolated from human breast milk upregulates hBD2 and hBD4 in HT-29 cells
Wira, "Innate immunity in the vagina (part I): estradiol inhibits HBD2
and elafin secretion by human vaginal epithelial cells," American Journal of Reproductive Immunology, vol.
Endometrial epithelial cells (eEC) significantly overexpressed six genes associated with anti-HIV-1 activity, the most abundant of which were secretory leukocyte peptidase inhibitor and HBD2. The increased gene expression observed in eEC potently inhibited HIV-1 infection of [CD4.sup.+] T cells .
Apart from direct antimicrobial activities, HBD2 has prominent immunomodulatory activities including recruitment of immune cells and induction of antiviral proteins.
HBD1 is constitutively expressed in the intestinal epithelium and colon, while HBD2 expression is induced in the colon and duodenum following pathogen exposure .
While HBD1 is constitutively expressed, HBD2 can be induced by both inflammatory stimuli and signals derived from pathogenic or probiotic bacteria, including Escherichia coli strain Nissle and certain lactobacilli [71, 72].
Colonic CD is associated with increased secretion of HBD2 but also low HBD1 levels .
Beuerman, "Defensins HNP1 and HBD2
stimulation of wound-associated responses in human conjunctival fibroblasts," Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science, vol.