Furthermore, in vitro and in vivo, we showed that the antifibrotic effect of hBMSCs
was mediated at least through the signaling pathways of NADPH oxidase.
The findings affirm the potential of [C.sub.3][N.sub.4]sheets in developing bone formation and directing hBMSCs
toward bone regeneration.
To receive lumbar intrathecal infusion of hBMSCs
, female Sprague-Dawley rats (weighing 220-250 g), purchased from Sun Yat-sen University of Medical Sciences Center for Animal Experiments, Guangzhou, China, were implanted with catheters (item #0007150; DURECT).
(21), which indicated that p10 mM concentration of Mg ion in the extracts enhanced the viability and osteogenic differentiation of hBMSCs
. Another recent study found that the increase of intracellular Mg concentration could stimulate the proliferation and migration of human osteoblast MG-63 cells (9).
Abbreviations: ALP, alkaline phosphatase; Runx2, runt-related transcription factor 2; COLI, type I collagen; OCN, osteocalcin; PCR, polymerase chain reaction; HBMSC
, human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells; MAPK, mitogen-activated protein kinase; ERK, extra-cellular regulated protein kinases; OS, osteogenic supplements; RIPA, radio-immunoprecipitation assay.
Sreekumar for SEM, Michael Gelinsky & Anne Bernhardt for hBMSCs
, DTERT for FTIR.
Differentiation of hBMSCs
into hepatocytes-like cells in standard monolayer or two dimensional (2D) cultures is now well established (21-24).
were cultured as noted in the previous section and exposed to osteogenic induction medium (DMEM containing 10% FBS, 1% penicillin-streptomycin, 50 mg/mL L-ascorbic acid (Wako Chemicals GmbH, Neuss, Germany, https://www.wakochemicals .de/), 10 mM [beta]-glycerophosphate (Sigma-Aldrich), 10 nM calcitriol (1a, 25-dihydroxy vitamin D3; Sigma-Aldrich), and 100 nM dexamethasone (Sigma-Aldrich)).
found that human umbilical cord MSCs (hUCMSCs) and human bone marrow MSCs (hBMSCs
) seeded on CaP for bone regeneration in rat cranial defects induced a similar bone mineral density, new bone amount, and vessel density in regenerated bone tissue.
This suggests that combinations of some of these proteins would enhance differentiation of human bone marrow stem/progenitor cells (hBMSCs
)-the stem cells that develop into bone and cartilage cells.
Although some recent studies showed that MAPK pathways were involved in human bone metabolism, including the commitment of human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (HBMSCs
) to the osteogenic and adipogenic lineages (Jaiswal et al., 2000) and mechanical stimulus-induced cell proliferation and matrix mineralization of HBMSCs
(Simmons et al., 2003; Riddle et al., 2006), whether the effect of RSVL on bone metabolism occurs via MAPK signaling is still unknown.
Previous studies demonstrated that mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), such as human adipose tissue-derived stem cells (hASCs) and human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (hBMSCs
), were potential stem cell sources for the applications of cartilage tissue engineering approaches [6, 7].