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Therefore, these findings suggested that the transgene of DsRed regulated by the 2.2-kb hGFAP gene promoter was indeed expressed in the astrocytes and confirmed that the 2.2-kb hGFAP gene promoter contains matched regulatory elements, which make it capable of introducing specific transgene expression in porcine astrocytes.
The 2.2-kb hGFAP promoter, generates transgenic mice (Zhuo et al., 1997; Nolte et al., 2001) with green fluorescence protein (GFP)-expressing astrocytes and allows the entire structure of astrocytes in a living brain to be visualized.
In this study, the 2.2-kb hGFAP promoter was employed for introducing astrocyte-specific expression of a fluorescence protein reporter gene in pigs.
To the best of our knowledge, this is the first demonstration that it is feasible to use the hGFAP promoter to specifically introduce a targeted protein into porcine astrocytes.
In addition, the HSCs and PSCs-specific expression of DsRed could permit the strategy that utilizes the hGFAP gene promoter for specifically introducing targeted transgene expression in porcine HSCs and PSCs.
(2008) confirmed the hGFAP gene promoter was capable of targeting mouse HSCs and further verified the HSCs were indeed one type of epithelial progenitors in adult mouse livers.
(2008) and also be reproduced in our transgenic mini-pig situation, while the finding that neither hGFAP nor mGFAP gene promoter could be efficiently mark the rodent HSCs was diverged far from our present study and those previous studies in rodents performed in vitro (Maubach et al., 2006; Ding et al., 2009) and in vivo (Yang et al., 2008; Puche et al., 2013; Stewart et al., 2014), and also be contradicted with the evidence that the GFAP was really present in rhesus monkey HSCs (Jin et al., 2011).
Regardless of the debates in rodent models, in the present study, the fact that the 2.2-kb hGFAP gene promoter holds matched regulatory elements therefore be capable of targeting porcine HSCs and PSCs has already been testified evidently.
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