If the sample is hrHPV
positive, reflex cytology is performed using the original collected sample.
Importantly, the HPV test approved by the FDA for screening via HPV Testing Alone is a DNA-based hrHPV
The USPSTF based the draft recommendations in part on a review of four randomized, controlled trials of cotesting hrHPV
and cytology that included more than 130,000 women.
Furthermore, the specific HPV prevalence characteristics in this population provide a platform for research to resolve scenarios that will ensue in the post HPV-vaccination with less or no HPV16 and HPV18 and potentially more other HRHPV
Of the 160 women tested, 2 (1.3%) had invalid tests and 116 (72.5%) tested negative for hrHPV
. Fifteen women (9.4%) tested positive for HPV 16 and/or 18 and 27 (16.9%) tested positive for non-16/18 hrHPV
Even infection with hrHPV
only results in the development of a high grade lesion in a small proportion of the infected group.
HPV-52 is one of the most frequent hrHPV
genotypes causing significant cervical pathology.
In a small subset of women persistent infection with hrHPV
types may lead to integration of viral DNA into the host cell DNA, which could lead to the development of pre-malignant cervical lesions (low-grade squamous intra-epithelial lesions/ LSIL, high-grade squamous intra-epithelial llesions/HSIL) and eventually to cervical cancer (Figs 2 and 3).
Summing up, the results obtained in this study corroborate that the use of cytology together with the detection of HRHPV
by HCA II assay could improve remarkably the efficiency of screening programs of cervical cancer in Paraguayan women over 30 years old, allowing the identification of a group of women with high risk of developing SIL and supporting the necessity of follow-up by screening with the HPV test in older women groups.
Oropharyngeal SCCs with transcriptionally active HRHPV
represent a unique type of HNSCC.
While cervical cytology has long been used as a screening test for cervical cancer, testing for high-risk HPV subtypes (hrHPV
testing) also has been used as a screening modality.
Under the newly proposed guidelines, women between 30 and 65 years could still be screened by Pap tests every three years or be screened by high-risk HPV (hrHPV
) tests every five years.