Mutations in the Artemis/DCLRE1C gene have traditionally been associated with SCID and Omenn syndrome, but recently various mutations have been shown to be associated also with milder forms of immunodeficiencies, including hypogammaglobulinemia
Rituximab can lead to a state of immunosuppression through B-cell depletion and also through the development of late-onset neutropenia and hypogammaglobulinemia
CVID is the most frequently occurring PID, and it often presents with hypogammaglobulinemia
, recurrent infections, and a poor vaccination response.
, lymphoproliferation, and mycobacterial disease in patients with activating mutations in STAT3.
Recently, a research on the mechanism of olfactory steroid production in rats found that sex hormone-binding globulin contributed to the rapid effects of olfactory steroids on limbic functions.[sup] These observations led us to question whether sex hormone-binding globulin also plays a role in endometrial proliferation and whether hypogammaglobulinemia
reduces the binding of sex hormones with sex hormone-binding globulin.
Recurrent pneumonia with mild hypogammaglobulinemia
diagnosed as X-linked agammaglobulinemia in adults.
The pathogenesis of immunodeficiency and predisposition to infection in CLL are multifactorial, with primary CLL-related risk factors identified as hypogammaglobulinemia
, defect in cell-mediated immunity, defective neutrophil function, increased length of disease (longer duration correlates with increased risk of severe infection), and advanced stage of disease .
This is due to a constellation of immune defects involving T-cell dysfunction, reduced complement levels, hypogammaglobulinemia
, and impaired B-cell function .
Serum viscosity was normal, beta-2 microglobulin was 2.68, and generalized hypogammaglobulinemia
was noted with IgG 400 mg/dL, IgA 21 mg/dL, and IgM 53 mg/dL (normal IgM).
Severe proteinuria and hypogammaglobulinemia
despite regular parenteral immunoglobulin supplementation had caused diverse infectious complications like recurrent pneumonia, erysipelas of both legs, and urinary tract infections.
Fatigue is an expected complaint and frequent infections can also be seen in BALTOMA patients due to immune compromise , hypogammaglobulinemia
in our case.
Other possible findings are leukocytosis (if there is infection of the cyst), eosinophilia (occurring in only 25% of the patients), and hypogammaglobulinemia
(present in 30% of the cases) .