Combined unilateral lesions of the mPFC
and the Nacb in opposite hemispheres (disconnection) in animals reduced selection of effortful options and produced perseveration of behavior without integrating information from affective feedback (Salamone & Correa, 2012; Hauber & Sommer, 2009).
(28) During fear extinction and fear extinction recall, the mPFC
and hippocampus regulate the amygdala from the top down through rich, mutual connections between these areas to modulate previously conditioned fear.
The findings, published in Journal of Neuroscience , showed that perinatal phthalate exposure resulted in a reduction in neuron number, synapse number, size of the mPFC
and a deficit in cognitive flexibility for both male and female adult offspring of these rats.
fMRI studies on human subjects have suggested that aspects of self and others are differentially processed in the MPFC
, a key node in the mentalizing system.
In conclusion, our results suggest a pivotal involvement of the frontal node of the DMN, more specifically the MPFC
, in the cognitive and emotional aspects of the empathic experience.
The most important finding of this study is that SCZ + S patients had reduced activations of the mPFC
during the Success event (with parametric modulation), relative to both SCZ - S patients and controls, as illustrated by the spatial conjunction analyses.
For example, inhibition of mPFC
ERK signaling pathways can induce depressive behaviors such as anhedonia  and impair the retention of fear memory .
The results indicated a significant [BP.sub.ND] of [11C] carfentanil in the ACC, mPFC
, medial orbitofrontal cortex (mOFC), and ventral caudate and putamen of both cerebral hemispheres, after the application of active TMS, compared to sham.
As can be observed, the final brain regions overlapped with regions of DMN typically within the left MPFC
, OPFC, and medial temporal lobe, which again is in good agreement with the age-related findings of most previous studies described above.
The percent BOLD signal changes between emotional face and control conditions were calculated in the ROIs in the gray matter regions associated with face processing and identified by the above FSL analysis, namely, the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC
), posterior cingulate cortex (PCC), amygdala (AMYG), and fusiform face area (FFA), using the AFNI program (3dDeconvolve) .
Background: Damage of the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC
) results in similar characteristics to the cognitive deficiency seen with the progress of Parkinson's disease (PD).
Association was found between the s allele and greater functional connectivity (FC) between the amygdala and anterior medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC