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Two cubes (2.0 cmx2.0 cmx2.0 cm) were sliced from each steak and individually submerged in sodium nitrite solution (0.3%) for 20 min to induce metmyoglobin formation.
The met-myoglobin rapidly accumulated in frozen meat than fresh meat, and an enzyme (metmyoglobin reductase) which convert the met-myoglobin into oxy-myoglobin is active in fresh meat (Jeong et al., 2011).
The formation of metmyoglobin can be delayed by either excluding 02 completely - by using vacuum packaging or a low-02 MAP gas mix - or by maintaining much higher 02 levels in the MAP gas, along with C02 to selectively inhibit the growth of spoilage bacteria.
(2016) added rosemary and pitanga extracts directly onto beef patties to evaluate color stability at 4[degrees]C during 4 days, and observed that pitanga extracts had a negative influence on meat color (redness and metmyoglobin formation), probably due to high chlorophyll content in extract, suggesting that this pigment affects myoglobin oxidation.
HX-[Fe.sup.III] + [H.sub.2][O.sub.2] [??] X - [[Fe.sup.IV] = O] + [H.sub.2]O ABTS + X - [[Fe.sup.IV] = O] [??] [ABTS.sup.+] + HX-[Fe.sup.III] HX-[Fe.sup.III]: Metmyoglobin; X - [[Fe.sup.IV] = O]: Ferrylmyoglobin; ABTS: 2,2'--Azino--di--[3--ethilbenzathiazolin sulphonate]
Total antioxidant capacity was estimated using Randox TAC status test in serum (Randox Laboratories LTd,United Kingdum) [ABTS.sup.R](2,2-Azino- di- [3-ethylbenzthiazoline sulphate]) was incubated with a peroxidase(metmyoglobin)and [H.sub.2][O.sub.2] to produce the radical cation [ABTS.sup.R]..
[ABTS.sup.*+] radical cation is formed by interaction of ABTS with ferryl myoglobin radical species generated by activation of metmyoglobin with [H.sub.2][O.sub.2].
Aerobic bacterial growth during logarithmic phase increases the rate of beef oxidation due to its high oxygen demand for the oxidation of myoglobin to metmyoglobin (Seideman et al., 1984).
Our results are in agreement with (Naveena et al., 2008) who observed the color value of the chicken patties that declined with storage days and the patties color changed from red to brown that might be due to the development of metmyoglobin in the treatments.
The assay relied on the ability of antioxidants in the sample to inhibit the oxidation of ABTS (2, 2'-Azino-di-[3-ethylbenzthiazoline sulphonate]) to ABTS*+ by metmyoglobin. It also measured all aqueous- and lipid-soluble antioxidants (including vitamins, proteins, lipids, glutathione, uric acid, etc.).
Browning of the product due to the formation of metmyoglobin causes consumers to mistrust both the safety and quality of the product, potentially leading to a decrease in sales.
Metmyoglobin is responsible for the brown coloration that occurs as meat ages.