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conviction in the immigration courts, or to allow the noncitizen to
acts as the adversary to the noncitizen, who has the right to be
witnesses, although the noncitizen may not have the right to access
While some organizations believe that this harms public health, the available evidence suggests that when noncitizen welfare was last restricted in 1996, immigrants compensated by working more and finding jobs with private health insurance, leading to no significant increases in poverty overall (Boijas 2016: 143-57).
Caption: FIGURE 2: Noncitizen Medicaid Participation Rates by Income Relative to the Poverty Line
FIGURE 1 Noncitizen Welfare Recipients by Percentage of Federal Poverty Line, 2013 >400% of Poverty Line, 56% >250-<400% of Poverty Line, 19% >125-<250% of Poverty Line, 12% <125% of Poverty Line, 14% Note: Welfare includes Medicaid, Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (i.e., Food Stamps), housing vouchers, rent subsidies, Supplemental Security Income, Temporary Assistance to Needy Families, and State General Assistance.
Section 1231(a)(1)(A) states that "when [a noncitizen] is ordered to be removed, the [AG] shall remove the alien from the [U.S.] within a period of 90 days." (9)' If the alien is not removed after the 90-day period expires, an noncitizen "may be detained beyond the removal period and, if released, shall be subject to the terms of supervision." (98) While some courts have interpreted the plain language of [section] 1231(a)(1)(A) as allowing for the indefinite detention of noncitizens unable to leave the U.S., the Supreme Court in Zadvydas found "nothing in the history of these statutes that clearly demonstrate[d] a congressional intent to authorize indefinite, and perhaps permanent, detention." (99)
(119) The case-by-case approach permits a detained noncitizen to file a habeas petition that if granted, triggers a bond hearing.
voters, (13) so the consequences of the Federal Noncitizen Voting Ban
when Congress abruptly took the issue of noncitizen suffrage away from
After jumping from 5.7 percent in 1990 to over 10 percent in the 2000s, the noncitizens' share was relatively stable, fluctuating between 10.1 percent and 11.5 percent, from 2000 to 2012.
In all but one occupation, the share of naturalized citizens was higher than that of noncitizens. The exception is software development, in which the share of naturalized citizens was larger by almost one third.