, however, is recommended as the alternative site for a BMD when central densitometry is unavailable.
However, role of pDXA in clinical practice in children is not clear because of lack of reference data and clearly set predictors of BMD at these sites.
Other studies using pDXA (44), DXA (46,47) and SPA (48,49) have also recorded similar findings.
The only other study which provides age-wise values of BMDca by pDXA estimated calcaneal BMD by pDXA shows an increase in BMD through all the ages (34).
The 3 major manufacturers of DXA and pDXA units are Hologic (Bedford, Mass), Norland (Fort Atkinson, Wis) and GE Lunar (Madison, Wis).
Radiologic technologists use pDXA for patients who need BMD studies of peripheral bones such as the heel, radius or ulna.
Unfortunately, peripheral bone's physiologic characteristics limit pDXA's usefulness.