Aoki et al., "Seasonal pattern of respiratory syncytial virus, influenza A virus, human metapneumovirus and parainfluenza virus
type 3 infection on the basis of virus isolation data between 2004 and 2011 in Yamagata, Japan," Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases, vol.
Revide Sayli, "Parainfluenza virus
4 presenting with pericardial effusion in an immunocompetent child," Journal of Infection in Developing Countries, vol.
Rathod et al., "The characteristics and outcomes of parainfluenza virus
infections in 200 patients with leukemia or recipients of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation," Blood, vol.
Isolation of a cytopathogenic virus from a case of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) and its characterization as parainfluenza virus
Clinical diagnosis for children with human parainfluenza virus
Current status of vaccines for parainfluenza virus
J.Anderson, "Pediatric hospitalizations for croup (laryngotracheobronchitis): biennial increases associated with human parainfluenza virus
1 epidemics," Journal of Infectious Diseases, vol.
*** Respiratory syncytial virus (three notifications), parainfluenza virus
3 (two), adenovirus (two), adenovirus 14 (one), and one each for human metapneumovirus, parechovirus, enterovirus 68, and rhinovirus.
"Determination of virus-induced cytopathogenic effects and virus titres revealed that EPs[R] 7630 at concentrations up to 100 [micro]g/ml interfered with replication of seasonal influenza A virus strains (H1N1, H3N2), respiratory syncytial virus, human coronavirus, parainfluenza virus
, and coxsackie virus but did not affect replication of highly pathogenic avian influenza A virus (H5N1), adenovirus, or rhinovirus.
In addition, a very broad antiviral activity of the homeopathic preparation of Gripp-Heel was demonstrated to act against human herpesvirus (HSV-1), human adenovirus (HAV), human parainfluenza virus
, human coxsackievirus, influenza A virus, HRV, and RSV, which might be based on the induction of type 1 interferons (Glatthaar 2007) by the respective substances.
These can include the detection of influenza virus A, B and C, adenovirus, metapneumovirus, RSV A and B, rhinovirus A, parainfluenza virus
1, 2 and 3, echovirus, bocavirus and coronavirus in a single test.
The usual culprit is the parainfluenza virus
, and once a child has had croup they might well be more likely to develop it with any chest infection in the future.