ppGppGuanosine 5-Diphosphate 3-Diphosphate
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and ppGpp, as well as newcomers such as cA[degrees]diA[degrees]AMP will be studied from molecular, cellular,
cholerae there is a probable third source of (p) ppGpp synthesis.
Recent studies indicate that CgtA is involved in maintaining steady-state level of (p) ppGpp during exponential growth (9).
The Escherichia coli GTPase [CgtA.sub.E] cofractionates with the 50S ribosomal subunit and interacts with spoT, a ppGpp synthetase/hydrolase.
DksA affects ppGpp induction of RpoS at a translational level.
DksA potentiates direct activation of amino acid promoters by ppGpp. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2005; 102: 7823-8.
ppGpp with DksA controls gene expression in the locus of enterocyte effacement (LEE) pathogenicity island of enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli through activation of two virulence regulatory genes.
Studies have showed that the resistance and tolerance of bacteria to environmental pressure are dependent on RELA and the resulting ppGpp (P) signal can mediate bacterial resistance to antibiotics, UV-resistant survival, and DNA damage repair.
151) DksA, an RNA polymerase-interacting transcription factor, inhibits transcription of fis by increasing the sensitivity to ppGpp, another RNA polymeraseinteracting nucleotide transcription factor.