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Both wind speed and temperature profiles obtained by CALMET model using WRF output as meteorological input (no matter with/without surface measurements as additional input) and PBL depths are quite similar to the rawinsonde data, and better than WRF results.
Two low-level jets were detected in the analysis of 18 rawinsonde profiles with appropriate wind data (Fig.
Specifically, standard and mesonet surface observations, ACARS observations, maritime observations, and rawinsondes were used.
Until commercial aircraft started carrying atmospheric sensors, balloon-borne instruments called radiosondes (now referred to as rawinsondes) were the most practical way to get vertical profiles of temperature and moisture aloft.
Since rawinsonde observations are assimilated into numerical weather prediction models, rawinsondes are released from all sites at the same times each day, most often at 0000 and 1200 UTC.
(1) Since wind measurements are obtained by GPS tracking, the instruments are also rawinsondes.
Furthermore, near-real-time forecast verification information was provided, in part by overlaying observed rawinsonde profiles atop ensemble skew T diagrams and observed reflectivity atop forecast reflectivity products (e.g., Fig.
Three rawinsonde units were used to measure temperature, relative humidity, and wind profiles during IOPs (Fig.
--, and --, 2010: Climatology of velocity and temperature turbulence statistics determined from rawinsonde and ACARS/AMDAR data.
A daily procedure was followed by the SURF Forecast Group (SFG) to decide whether or not to call for summer 12-h IOP, with its additional rawinsonde soundings and/or mobile observations.
Coordinated rawinsonde launches on HRS, AE, and the shore site were made during all RF sampling periods, providing environmental refractivity profiles along the range of the propagation link.
(2016), who verified 1 year of RAP output between 1,000 and 100 hPa against all available routine rawinsonde launches over the CONUS and found vector-wind errors of ~4 m [s.sup.-1] for 6-h forecasts over 50-hPa vertical layers through most of the troposphere.
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