Smith explained how their calculations showed that the ribozyme
's internal dynamics included an active site, or "mouth," which opens and closes to control the reaction.
The ligated plasmids were transformed into JM109 cells and the resulting colonies were screened for the presence of the ribozyme
. For this, miniprep DNA was screened by PCR using a plasmid-specific primer pair that framed the cloning site.
These include the use of oligonucleotide-based therapies (antisense oligonucleotides, ribozymes
and siRNA), as well as protein-based approaches.
Ralph Christofferson, formerly Ribozyme
's CEO and now a partner with Morgenthaler Ventures.
FERRIS: This capping reaction is a common process even without a ribozyme
. In all of our reactions we tend to have a chemical reaction on the end of caps of this type as a by-product.
Second, it shows that even the capacity for partial replication of genetic information in RNA molecules results from the activity of chemists, that is, from the intelligence of the "ribozyme
engineers" who design and select the features of these (partial) RNA replicators.
On the other hand, ribozymes
offer several advantages over conventional anti-sense RNA.
MARGULIS: You mentioned that, in addition to the original work by Tom Cech on a ribozyme
from Tetrahymena, a ciliate, there are six other naturally occurring ribozymes
But the discovery that RNA can be an enzyme, dubbed a ribozyme
, potentially able to boost its own replication, led to fresh ideas about how life might have started.
Yarus' team focused on a ribozyme
- a form of RNA that can catalyze chemical reactions - with only five nucleotides.
Design and synthesis of hammerhead ribozyme
targeted to nucleotide 5127 of HIV-1 Vif.
10:45 COENZYME SYNTHESIS AND UTILIZATION BY RNA AND THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN RIBOZYME
SIZE AND CATALYTIC ACTIVITY