sTNFR2Soluble Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor 2
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The results of this review suggest that TNF activity measured by TNF[alpha], sTNFR1 and sTNFR2 could be related to the length of illness, the number of episodes and changes to the cognitive function in adult patients with BD during euthymia.
The objectives of this study were: 1) To characterize the intensity of vibration stimulation in women diagnosed with FM as compared to a control group of healthy women (HW), matched by age and anthropometric parameters and 2) to investigate the effect of a single bout of WBV on inflammatory biomarker levels (adiponectin, sTNFr1, sTNFr2, resistin, leptin, BDNF, and IL-8).
In the COPD group, levels of IL-6, IL-8, sTNFR1, and sTNFR2 did not change after WBV [IL-6 (p = 0.08, df = 12); IL-8 (p = 0.25, df = 12); sTNFR-1 (p = 0.38, df = 12); and sTNFR-2 (p = 0.37, df = 12)].
Aksoy et al., "Levels of TNF-[alpha], soluble TNF receptors (sTNFR1, sTNFR2), and cognition in bipolar disorder," Human Psychopharmacology, vol.
To determine if low doses of BCG were enough to activate TNF and sTNFRs, we measured iTNF and tmTNF by flow cytometry and sTNF, sTNFR1, and sTNFR2 levels by ELISA.
Serum levels were tested according to the procedures supplied by the manufacturer, using sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) kits for TNF-[alpha], sTNFR1, and sTNFR2 (DuoSet, R&D Systems--Minneapolis, Minn., USA), as routinely performed in this laboratory.
Plasma concentrations of the soluble TNF-[alpha] receptor 2 (sTNFR2) seem to be good markers of TNF-[alpha]-induced insulin resistance (6, 7), whereas the circulating concentration of TNF-[alpha] is usually not informative, probably because of its instability and very low concentration in plasma.
(33) have shown, in the WBVE group compared to the control group, a significant reduction of the plasma concentrations of surface TNF-[alpha] receptors 1 and 2 (sTNFR1 and sTNFR2), a significant increase in the self-reported pain (WOMAC), balance (BBS), and gait performance (6MWT).
Immunostaining for interleukin- (IL-) 6, IL-1[beta], tumor necrosis factor- (TNF-) [alpha], soluble TNF-[alpha] receptor 2 (sTNFR2), collagen I, collagen III, collagen IV, matrix metalloproteinase- (MMP-) 2, MMP-9, and tissue inhibitor of MMP (TIMP-) 1 followed the methods described previously.
(10), acute and chronic aerobic exercise resulted in a change in sTNFR1 and sTNFR2 levels that correlated with functional improvements in elderly women with kOA.
TNFR2 exists in a membrane-bound form (mTNFR2) and a soluble form (sTNFR2) and deserves attention because the analyses of TNFRSF1A knockout mice clearly indicated that TNFR2 stimulation alone is sufficient to activate most of the signaling pathways mediated via TNFRSF1A [27].
The plasma levels of cytokines IL-10, IL-6 and TNF-[alpha] and the soluble receptors of TNF-[alpha], sTNFR1 and sTNFR2 were measured by ELISA kits (DuoSet[R], R&D Systems, USA) according to the manufacturer's instructions.