sVCAMSoluble Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule
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reported an increased serum sVCAM concentrations in the offspring of T2D patients and elevated levels of sICAM in subjects with IGT or T2D [39].
A negative and significant (r=-0.155) correlation was found between Magnesium levelsand sVCAM -1 and CRP (r=-0.051) table-2.
Coronary atherosclerosis causes release of inflammatory cytokines which in turn generate increased expression of CAMS like soluble ICAM-1 and SVCAM. The mentioned cellular adhesion molecules play a crucial role in the migration of leucocytes from the blood to the arterial intima (transendothelial route).
Additional CPC subsets, CAC numbers, and vascular biomarkers (IL-6, IL-8, TNF[alpha], IP-10, SCF, sSCF-R, VEGF, E-selectin, sICAM, and sVCAM) were determined and compared to AMH as a secondary outcome.
Vascular damage markers sICAM and sVCAM were elevated in patients with DM-1 compared to healthy controls (see Table 2).
We extensively assessed biomarkers in serum samples from this SUDV outbreak and found that IL-10, IP-10, RANTES, sICAM, sVCAM, and PAI-1 were higher in pediatric patients than in adult patients and were also associated with specific outcomes in pediatric patients.
Thus, monocyte/macrophage accumulation at the lesion site is a key factor in atherosclerotic disease and involves several steps including monocyte recruitment by increased levels of adhesion molecules (sVCAM, sICAM, E-, and P-selectins) and chemotactic factors (MCP-1, MIP-1[beta], IP-10, and RANTES), the induction of activation, differentiation, and proliferation processes, and immobilization of macrophages in the inflamed plaque [30].
Measurements of inflammatory factors [Hs-CRP, sE-selectin, sICAM-1, sVCAM, and interleukin 6 (IL-6)] and flow-mediated dilation (FMD) were made at baseline, 4 hours after first juice consumption and after one month of juice consumption.
To improve precision and run-to-run variability, 1 technician used semiautomated analysis methods on 3 of the markers (sVCAM, sICAM, CRP), and manual methods were used on the other assayed selectins.
We used RIA (LINGO Research) to measure plasma adiponectin and ELISAs to measure serum concentrations of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) [alpha], IL-6 (R&D Systems Inc.), soluble E-selectin, soluble intercellular adhesion molecule (sICAM) 2, soluble vascular cellular adhesion molecule (sVCAM) 1, and plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI) 1 (Bender MedSystems).
[3] Nonstandard abbreviations: HELLP, hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, and low platelets; CAM, cell adhesion molecule; sICAM, soluble intercellular adhesion molecule; sVCAM, soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule; MOM, multiple(s) of the mean; and AUC, area under the curve.
CAD: coronary artery disease, FMD: flow-mediated dilation, GFR: glomerular filtration rate, hsCRP: high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, IL: interleukin, IMT: intimamedia thickness, IRA: infarct-related artery, LDLc: low-density lipoprotein-associated cholesterol, MCAM: melanoma cell adhesion molecule, MCP-1: monocyte chemotactic protein-1, PAI-1: plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, PCOS: polycystic ovary syndrome, sICAM: soluble intercellular adhesion molecule, sVCAM: soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule, and TD2: type 2 diabetes mellitus.